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Introduction to Robotics
Robot was Defined by:
Word “robot” was introduced by a Czech novelist Karel Capek in a 1920, play titled Rassum’s Universal Robots (RUR)
“Robot” in Czech is a word for worker or servant.
“A robot is a re-programmable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”
- Robot Institute of America, 1979
What is Robotics:
Robotic development team made mechanical devices that can move by themselves, and those motions must be planned, sensed, modelled, actuated and controlled. Also that motion behaviour can be influenced through programming. Robots are called “intelligent” if they can move safe interaction with an unstructured environment, while automatically achieving their particular tasks.
The device can only be called a robot, if it contains a movable mechanism, influenced by, actuation, sensing, planning and control components. The components must be implemented in software, either changeable by the user who uses the device.
There are a various kinds of robots available in our current scenario; intelligent dumb robots, metal and woodworking machines, intelligent washing machines, dish washers and pool cleaning robots, etc. Those robots all have ‘sensing’, ‘planning’ and ‘control’. But often not in individually separated components, such that; the sensing and planning behaviour of the pool cleaning robot have been integrated into the mechanical design of the device, by the intelligence of the human developer.
Robotics is a wide area, includes all about system integration, achieving a task by an actuated mechanical device, through an intelligent integration of electronic components. Many of robots were shares with other domains, such as systems and control, computer science, character animation, machine design, computer vision, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, biomechanics, etc.
The boundaries of robotics are undefined!!! Its core ideas, concepts and algorithms are being applied in an ever increasing number of external applications, and, vice versa, core technology from other domains , such as vision, biology, cognitive science or biomechanics, for example, are becoming crucial components in more and more modern robotic systems.
Robots and its Types:
1. Industrial robots:
Industrial robots are used for industrial manufacturing environments. These are articulated arms specifically developed for such applications as ‘welding’, ‘material handling’, ‘painting’ and others. If these create based on application, it could also include some ‘automated guided vehicles’ and other robots.
2. Domestic or household robots:
Now a days and in future, robots were used at home. This kind of robots includes different devices such as ‘robotic vacuum cleaners’, ‘robotic pool cleaners’, ‘sweepers’, ‘gutter cleaners’ and other robots that can do different chores. Some surveillance and tele-presence robots could be regarded as household robots if used in that environment.
3. Medical robots:
Robots used in medicine and medical institutions were commonly called as medical robots. For example, ‘surgery robots’. Also, some ‘automated guided vehicles’ and maybe ‘lifting aides’ too.
4. Service robots:
These type of robots used for purposes such as; data gathering robots, robots used for research, robots made to show off technologies etc.
5. Military robots:
These are the category of robots used in military purposes. It includes ‘bomb disposal robots’, ‘different transportation robots’, ‘reconnaissance drones’ etc. Robots initially created for military purposes can also be used in law enforcement, search and rescue and other related fields etc.
6. Entertainment robots:
These robots were widely used for entertainment purposes. This is a very broad category, and is starts with toy robots, running alarm clock and ends with real heavyweights such as articulated robot arms used as motion simulators.
7. Space robots:
These types of robots were used in space purposes in our current scenario. It would include robots used on the ‘International Space Station Robots’, ‘robots used in Space Shuttles’, as well as ‘Mars rovers’, ‘Moon Rovers’ and other robots used in space.
8. Hobby and competition robots:
Robots that you create for hobby purposes. These having a wide example such as; ‘Line follower robots’, ‘Sumo-bots’, robots made just for fun and robots made for competition.