12v to 220v inverter DIY circuit

Inverters are made for producing high voltage from low voltage DC sources/batteries. We are here to design an inverter circuit for converting 12V DC source into 220V AC power. Its components are easily available in our electronics markets and so easy to build on PCB boards.


Operations of this kind of inverters are based on switching pulses and were uses step-up transformers. So, the CD4047 microcontroller acts as a switching pulse oscillator and IRFZ44N (N-channel power MOSFET) acts as it’s switch. Then the 12-0-12 secondary transformer will inversely used as a step-up transformer.

Inverter Circuit Diagram


Components Required

  1. Micro-controller CD4047
  2. Power MOSFET IRFZ44 = 2.
  3. 12-0-12V secondary transformer 1 amps
  4. Variable Resistor 22KΩ
  5. Resistors 100Ω / 10 watts = 2
  6. capacitor 0.22µF
  7. 12 volt battery

Construction & Working

This inverter circuit has switch device and step-up transformer. As per the theories, high switch frequency pulse reaches the step up transformer and due to the mutual inductance; output voltage will reach high value.

The microcontroller CD 4047 is configured as an astable multi-vibrator mode with the help of variable resistor RV1 and capacitor C1. By varying the value of RV1, we will collect different range of output pulse at Q and Q’ pins. These all results the variation of output voltage at the step-up transformer.

The IRFZ44 (N-channel power MOSFET) will drain, pins are connected with secondary pins of the transformer and common pin connected with the secondary winding and is connected with battery positive bias. Both MOSFETs source pins are connected to the negative bias of battery. And these are driven by Q and Q’ output from CD4047 micro-controller. If an alternate square pulse drives the MOSFETs switches, the secondary winding may forced to induce alternate magnetic field. This magnetic field induce primary winding of transformer and will produce high alternate voltage.

Note: High AC voltage circuit. Attention for handle with extreme care.



Organic electronics


Organics electronics used Flexible electronic circuits, displays, and sensors based on organic active materials will enable future generations of electronics products that may eventually enter the mainstream electronics market. The motivations in using organic active materials come from their ease in tuning electronic and processing properties by chemical design and synthesis, low cost processing based on low temperature processes and reel-to-reel printing methods, mechanical flexibility, and compatibility with flexible substrates. Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) are the basic building blocks for flexible integrated circuits and displays.

During the operation of the transistor, a gate electrode is used to control the current flow between the drain and source electrodes. Typically, a higher applied gate voltage leads to higher current flow between drain and source electrodes. The semiconductor material for a fast switching transistor should have high charge carrier mobility and on/off current ratio.

Organic Semiconductors

There are two types of organic semiconductors based on the type of majority charge carriers: p-type (holes as major charge carriers) and n-type (electrons as major charge carriers). To facilitate charge transport, the organic semiconductor layer usually consists of p-conjugated polymers, in which the p–p stacking direction should ideally be along the current flow direction. This requires the semiconductor molecules to self-assemble into a certain orientation upon either vapor or solution deposition. It is also important that the semiconductor thin film has large, densely packed and well-interconnected grains. Most small molecule, high performance organic semiconductors tend to have the long axes of the molecules oriented close to normal to the dielectric surface with the typical grain size in the order of at least a few micrometers. In case of solution processed semiconducting polymers, it is preferred for the p-conjugated plane to adapt an edge-on orientation on the surface.

The morphology of the semiconductor film is highly dependent on the chemical and physical nature of the dielectric surface. Patterning of dielectric surface can lead to selective patterning of the organic semiconductor in desired locations, which is important to reduce cross talk between devices. With proper control of the dielectric surface, arrays of organic semiconductor single crystals can be patterned over a large area for high performance transistors.

Dielectric Materials

The dielectric layer for organic transistors should be as thin as possible, pinhole-free, and ideally with a high dielectric constant for low voltage operation. Inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic hybrid materials have been investigated as the gate dielectric materials. Promising materials include poly(methy methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(styrene), poly(vinyl phenol), silsesquioxane (glass resin), and benzocyclobutene (BCB), etc. Crosslinked polymers generally are more robust as ultrathin dielectric materials. Even a well-ordered densely packed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) may be used as the thinnest possible high quality dielectric layer. Incorporation of high dielectric constant inorganic nanoparticles into a polymer matrix boosts the overall dielectric constant of the thin film.

Electrode Materials

For organic transistors to function properly, charge injection from the electrode needs to be efficient. This requires the work function of the electrode to match well with the energy level of the organic semiconductor such that the energy barrier for charge injection is low. Typically high work function electrodes (Au, Pd, or indium tin oxide) have been used for p-channel organic transistors. Electrode surface modification with a self-assembled monolayer can be used to improve the charge injection into the organic semiconductor. When the organic semiconductor is deposited onto the source and drain electrodes, the morphology of organic semiconductors is significantly different.
In summary, organic materials are promising candidates for flexible electronic devices. Significant progress has already been made in this field. Nevertheless, better understanding of the structure property relationship is still needed so that we can rationally design materials to achieve desired device performance parameters.

New n-Type Polymeric Semiconductors

The unifying basic requirement of most thin-film, organic electronic devices like OLEDs and OPVs is that they contain at least two semiconducting materials with offsets in their molecular orbital energy levels. In the organic semiconductor world, one can create such an energy offset by forming an interface between a more electron-rich (p-type) semiconductor and an electron-poor (n-type) material. It is at this interface that charge separation or recombination typically occurs. There are a number of available classes of relatively electron-rich, p-type semiconducting molecules and polymers. In contrast, there are few electron-poor, n-type semiconducting molecules, like metalloporphyrins and methanofullerenes. Even rarer are the n-type semiconducting, p-conjugated polymers like cyanoderivatives of poly(p-phenylenevinylenes).

High Efficiency In Organic Light-Emitting Devices

Hetero-structure OLEDs Electroluminescence of organic molecules has been a wellknown phenomenon for more than 50 years. Successful application of organic luminescence in light-emitting devices required device structures that overcame the problems associated with the high resistivity of organic materials, and achieved a well-balanced charge injection from the electrodes into organics. These two problems were solved by Tang and van Slyke3 with the thin film heterostructure concept for the organic LEDs (OLEDs).

oled hexcodeplus

OLEDs have promise to make a marked impact in full color displays and lighting applications. Both of these families of devices require high efficiency and long lifetime, as well as low-cost fabrication, a wide-gamut for sets of devices and high color saturation. OLEDs have demonstrated all of these properties; however, large area fabrication remains a significant challenge, making manufacturing costs quite high. Another technological challenge is the device lifetimes for deep blue devices. There are a large number of stable red and green phosphorescent emitters, giving device lifetimes approaching 106 hours. In contrast, the operational stability of the blue phosphor based OLEDs are typically markedly shorter, with the best values between 15K and 20K hours. The source of the enhanced instability of these blue devices is still an open question. While many fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs have been commercialized in small area mobile displays, there is still ample room for scientific investigation to better understand the parameters controlling and limiting organic electroluminescence.

Light-Emitting Polymers

Switching between doped and un-doped states induces changes in a number of Light Emitting Polymer (LEP) properties, such as polymer volume, absorption color, and reversible PL quenching. These controlled changes make LEPs promising for applications: an induced variation in absorption color may be exploited for electro-chromic displays while a change in volume may be utilized for electro-active artificial polymer muscles. The combination of semi-conductivity and intense PL results in LEP electro-luminescence and their use in polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs). The high sensitivity of PL quenching to doping or charge transfer can be used to detect biological and explosive species. Therefore, the LEPs represent an important category of low-temperature processable materials useful for many scientific and technological explorations. PLEDs are currently under development for applications in flat panel displays and lighting with strong commercialization potential that depends on understanding and improvement of properties of the LEPs.

High-performance PLED requires the LEP layer to meet several stringent requirements:
1. Color purity, which is determined by the polymer band-gap and film morphology
2. Matching of ionization potentials and electron affinities between LEP and the different electrode materials
3. High PL quantum efficiency
4. Chemical and thermal stability
5. Processability which involves solubility, solution viscosity, and solvent-substrate compatibility.


Virtual Reality


Virtual Reality is an interactive computer-generated experience and use of computer technology to create a simulated environment. VR helps the user to experience from inside, Instead of viewing a screen in front of them, users are immersed and able to interact with 3D worlds using VR head mounted displays. In VR Technology, most commonly uses virtual reality headsets (HMD’s) or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments, to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that simulate a user’s physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment.

VR can be used in various fields such as academic research through to engineering, design, business, the arts and entertainment. Also virtual reality produces a set of data which is then used to develop new models, training methods, communication and interaction.

Virtual Reality can be applied in various fields :

VR can be used in medical studies to enable students to know the human body structure.
VR can be used in scientific research laboratories so that scientist can easily research on a specific topic.
VR can be used in entertaiment like in games and movies to make the gaming experience more real and to allow individual to experience adventures under extreme conditions.
AVRDude (Software that programs the microcontroller on Arduino), and VR can be used in driving schools as it give a real look of roads and traffic.
VR can be used in military training for the soldiers to get familiar with different areas in the battlefield.

Advantages of Virtual Reality:

Virtual reality creates a realistic like world in virtually
It enables user to explore places in virtually.
Through Virtual Reality user can experiment with an artificial environment.
Virtual Reality make the education more easily and comfort.

Disadvantages of Virtual Reality:

  • The equipment used in virtual reality are very expensive (Example: HTC Vive)
  • It consists of complex technology.
  • In virtual reality environment we can’t move by our own like in the real world.

Applications of Virtual Reality:

Using VR exposure therapy, a person enters a re-enactment of a traumatic event. It has also been used to treat anxiety, phobias and depression. Virtual reality technology can provide a safe environment for patients to come into contact with things they fear, whilst remaining in a controlled and safe environment.

And we describing some more applications here below:

  • Training & Education
  • Entertainment & Gaming
  • Help & Healing
  • Architecture & Planning
  1. Training & Education
    A virtual reality simulator enables someone to learn basics without any accident himself or others and their property. VR also may reduce liability exposure for the driver-training school. Also helps to military trainings. Immersive experiences also enable medical students to test surgical skills without live patients. In some situations, VR provides the only safe environment in which to gain advanced or even basic skills. VR that models the real world poorly leads to faulty training results.
  2. Entertainment & Gaming
    VR helps to enter and participate users into imaginary worlds, turning watching a screen into living an experience. Some VR headsets carry a high price tag, especially for proprietary closed-face designs. Wearing them for long periods of time produces fatigue and an unsettling feeling of enclosure. In some cases, VR leads to make results that interfere with the ability to perceive and react to real experiences, or that encourage the choice of VR over real life.
  3. Help & Healing
    Simulating terrible events can help military service members work through some of the effects of terrible stress disorder that result from fight. VR also can assist in treating phobias, especially those that involve handling or being near specific animals, environments or objects. VR holds promise in physical rehabilitation, providing patients with opportunities to refine ambulatory or other skills in a clinic setting before moving on to the real-life equivalent.
  4. Architecture & Planning
    Virtual reality technology into architectural design & urban planning helps decision makers visualize the outcomes of proposed development and renewal of designs. Early versions of this up, but coming use of VR combined computer-aided design with geographic information systems to produce a virtual world in a Web browser. That websites can serve up fly-through reconstructions of real cities, the move to fully immersive experiences only requires the ability to incorporate the onscreen view into a VR headset. Meanwhile, augmented reality projects virtual information onto a real-world scene with incorporating new graphical objects /adding notations.

Paper Battery

Paper battery is a thin, flexible energy production & storage device. This device is a combination of carbon nano-tubes with cellulose based paper. Paper batteries may be folded, cut for different applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency. The paper battery can act in two ways. A battery as well as a super capacitor. These non-toxic, flexible batteries can be used as a power source to next generation electronic devices, medical devices, hybrid vehicles, etc.

In embedded sensors, there has been a corresponding need for alternative power sources in the Internet of Things (IoT). The high cellulose content and lack of toxic chemicals in paper batteries make them environmentally friendly, as compared to the lithium ion batteries used in many present-day electronic devices.
Paper batteries can be used in humans and animals, including RFID tags, medicine-delivery systems and pacemakers.


The Future Power Source

Researcher’s have developed paper batteries of size slightly larger than a postal stamp that can produce energy that is enough to illuminate a small bulb. In our future, we can expect a stack of paper batteries that is able to power up a vehicle. These are the power source to next generation electronic devices, medical devices, pace makers, hybrid vehicles, etc.


Normal battery contains a lot of separate components. But a paper battery all these components are made to a single unit, which makes it more energy efficient.
The main components of a paper battery are carbon nano-tubes having thickness one millionth of a centimeter. The carbon is the reason for the thick black colour for the battery. These nano-tube films act as the electrodes which are embedded in cellulose based paper, soaked in ionic electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte does not contain any water content. So as there is nothing to freeze or evaporate, it can be used in any environmental conditions. The battery can produce power even if it is folded or cut.


To grow the nano-tubes on a silicon substrate and then filling the gaps in the matrix with cellulose. Combining the sheets together with the cellulose sides facing inwards, the battery structure is formed. The electrolyte is added to the structure.


Main advantage of the paper batteries are that it can be folded, cut or shaped for the required applications without any loss in its efficiency. If the battery is cut into half, the energy produced by them is halved. Stacking more than one paper batteries multiplies its power output. A postal stamp sized paper battery can able to produce about 2.5 volts of electricity. These batteries are also environment-friendly. Presence of cellulose and lack of toxic contents in paper batteries makes the device environmentally friendly as compared to the traditional lithium ion batteries.


Night vision technology

It is the ability to see in low-light conditions. Whether by biological or technological means, night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range, and sufficient intensity range.


With the proper night-vision equipment, anyone can see a person standing over 200 yards (183 m) away on a moonless, cloudy night. Night vision can work in two very different ways, depending on the technology used.

Image & enhancement – This works by collecting the tiny amounts of light, including the lower portion of the infrared light spectrum, that are present but may be imperceptible to our eyes, and amplifying it to the point that we can easily observe the image.

Thermal imaging Process – This technology operates by capturing the upper portion of the infrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat by objects instead of simply reflected as light. Hotter objects, such as warm bodies, emit more of this light than cooler objects like trees or buildings.

Night vision is technology that provides users with some vision in total darkness and improved vision in low-light environments.

Applications of Night vision is technology

  • Night driving or flying
  • night security and surveillance
  • wildlife observation
  • sleep lab monitoring
  • search
  • rescue
  • Night vision is often used by the military and also has recreational purposes, like use on home video cameras or during night hiking.

Military radar

Types of Radars

Radars were developed for military services, and it has various applications for national defense purposes. Commonly, radars are used to detect missiles, aircraft, artillery, ships, land vehicles, and satellites. Radar can control and guide weapons.
There are three different categories of Military Radar systems.

  • 1. Land-based
  • 2. Ship borne
  • 3. Airborne
Some other prominent categories of radars are described here below.

Land-Based (Air Defense) Radars: These categories of radars cover all mobile, fixed, and portable 2-D systems and 3-D systems etc used in the air defense military mission.
Missile Control & Ground Surveillance Radars: These type having the ability to fire-control, tracking, and weapons-locating technology whether the object is mobile, fixed, man-portable or transportable.
Naval & Coastal Surveillance Navigation Radars (Ship-Borne): These have ship-borne surface search and air search radars. Also having the ability for land-based coastal surveillance radars.
Naval Fire-Control Radars: are ship borne radars and that are part of weapons guidance and radar-based fire-control systems.
Airborne Surveillance Radars: Designed for maritime surveillance, early warning, and land. Also for helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, or remotely piloted vehicles.
Airborne Fire-Control Radars: These are for weapons aiming & weapons fire-control.


Simple Pulse Radar: It is the most typical radar with a waveform consisting of repetitive short-duration pulses. For example; long-range air and maritime surveillance radars, test range radars, and weather radars etc. There are two type of Pulse radars.

  • 1) Moving-Target Indication (MTI) Radar
  • 2) Pulse Doppler Radar

Pulse radar applications in various fields such as; Army, Navy, Air Force, NASA, Department of Commerce (DOC), FAA, USCG, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Energy (DOE), National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Treasury and Department of the Interior (DOI).

1) Moving-Target Indication (MTI) Radar: MTI radar can identify echoes of a moving target from non moving objects and clutter, then reject the clutter.
Applications of MTI Radars: Army, Navy, Air Force, FAA, USCG, NASA, and Department of Commerce (DOC).
Airborne Moving-Target Indication (AMTI) Radar: It detects moving targets even though the radar unit is in motion. AMTI radars are used in Army, Navy, Air Force, and the USCG.
2) Pulse Doppler Radar: It is a type of pulse radar that uses Doppler frequency shift of the echo signal to reject clutter and also detect moving aircraft etc.
Applications of Pulse Doppler Radars: Army, Navy, Air Force, FAA, USCG, NASA, and DOC.
3) High-Range Resolution Radar: It’s the pulse-type radar, uses very short pulses to catch the range resolution of a target. Is used to detect a stationary target or fixed in the clutter.
Applications: Army, Navy, Air Force, NASA, and DOE are users of high-range resolution radars.
4) Pulse-Compression Radar: Similar to high-range resolution radar. But it overcomes peak power and long-range limitations using the resolution of a short pulse with the energy of a long pulse. The frequency or phase modulation allows the long pulse to be compressed in the receiver by an amount equal to the reciprocal of the signal bandwidth.
Applications:Army, Navy, Air Force, NASA, and DOE are users of pulse-compression radars.
5) Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR): Airborne radar having a large side-looking antenna. Also is capable of high-range resolution. SLAR generates map-like images of ground and also it permits detection of ground targets.
Applications: Army, Navy, Air Force, NASA, and the USCG. 6) Imaging Radar:Imaging radar used for the creation of two dimentional image of a landscape using the aid like a digital computer
Applications: Army, Navy, Air Force, and NASA are the primary users of imaging radars.
7) Tracking Radar: Continuously follows a single target in angle and range to determine its path to predict its future position. Typical tracking radar measures the target location at a rate of 10 times per second. Range instrumentation radars are typical tracking radars. These radars are sometimes referred to as fire-control radars.
Applications: Army, Navy, Air Force, NASA, and DOE.
8) Scattero-meter: This radar is used in aircraft or satellites. Generally its antenna beam is oriented at various aspects to the sides of its track vertically beneath it. It uses the measurement of the return echo power variation with aspect angle to determine the wind direction and speed of the Earth’s ocean surfaces.
9) Precipitation Radar: Used on aircraft or satellites. Generally its antenna beam is scanning at an angle optimum to its flight path to measure radar returns from rainfall to determine rainfall rate.
10) Cloud Profile Radar: Used on aboard an aircraft or satellite. The radar beam is oriented at nadir measuring the radar returns from clouds to determine the cloud reflectivity profile over the Earth’s surface.


Future in robotics

Robotics is the study of robots. Robots are machines that can be used to do jobs. Some robots can do work by themselves. Other robots must always have a person telling them what to do. Robots can work under extreme environments where it’s dangerous or impossible for humans to go. Robotics requires a working knowledge of electronics, mechanics, and software and a person working in the field has become known as a roboticist. It deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. In the future, robots with artificial intelligence will help make life easier for all of us – doing our dull, dirty, difficult jobs, and tackling tasks we simply couldn’t do ourselves.

Some future applications of Robots:

  • Space – Orbit manufacture of replacement parts
  • Tools for aircraft
  • Robots under ice focuses on the use of autonomous submarines to determine ice hazard risks for shipping
  • Energy installations in the arctic.
  • Drones for inspection of offshore wind farms with the use of autonomous surface vessels, creating a system which will automatically deploy and recover the inspection drones.

Future Food

AI equipped machines will also play a big part in the future of agriculture, reducing food production costs and improving land use. In future, robots or drones will precisely remove weeds or target them with pesticide, helping reduce chemical use by up to 90%, while tiny sensors could monitor crop growth and alert farmers to problems, or let them know the best time to harvest. Getting food to consumers will be greener, cheaper and easier, with the help of driverless vehicles. Autonomous delivery systems to the home will make on-demand deliveries much more economically viable. And because people will only order what they need, when they need it, food waste and the excess packaging associated with bulk buying in supermarkets will be drastically reduced.

Smarter Energy

In the future, our energy will be generated as low-cost, renewable resources, built and maintained in remote locations by robotic systems. Autonomous scouts will work in teams, exploring the earth to harvest energy, finding sources of renewable energy and natural resources, as well as monitoring bio-diversity and climate. Robots are already being used to monitor the safety of oil and gas pipelines: smart robots carry out internal, in-service pipeline inspection. The use of aerial drones to monitor large and difficult to reach areas, helping overcome issues of restricted access. Robots could even clean up waste such as plastics from our oceans, and other pollutants.

Working Together

Robotics and AI helps to change many things for the better. But with robots replace so many of the tasks that were traditionally done by humans, it’s gradually decrease our jobs. It’s probably more helpful to think. While some jobs may gradually disappear, there will be opportunities for new career choices that we probably can’t even imagine now. When humans and AI powered systems work together, they are most effective – the group of people and machines, using human imagination, creativity and personality, but combined with the precision and accuracy, strength, reliability and automation of robotic systems, etc. will see humans get legal power to take on the tasks we do best. Technologies that simplify the control of robots from anywhere, will allow many more physical jobs to be carried out remotely, so that people can work much more flexible and comfortable conditions. The increased productivity of a workforce where human and machine skills are combined will help grow economies, and opportunities, worldwide.

9 Ways – Robotics Could Transform Our Future World:


Here we are discussing about the future of robotics in various streams.

1. Robotics in public security

Artificial Intelligence technology for predicting and detecting crime. By using drone footage will make that happen soon. In addition to that, identification of automatic recognition of suspicious activities based on camera -based security systems. This technology will help the society in a smart way. It allows law enforcement officials to act actions quickly when suspicious behavior has been spotted.

2. Robots in education

A single teacher can’t have the capacity to fulfill the needs for every single student in the classroom. Computer-based learning is already changing things from these ways. It’s not replacing the teacher, but it helps and supports students to learn their own. Personalized learning processes will increase the robots. NAO, the humanoid robot, is already forming bonds with students from around the world. It comes with important senses of natural interaction, including moving, listening, speaking, and connecting.

3. Robots at home

Internet connected home robots are already part of our lives. Multi-function robotic cookers are able to fry, steam, bake, slow cook, and perform any other action without our intervention. We just need to set them up. We expect to see speech comprehension and increased interactions with humans in the upcoming years. These developments may end up changing the entire look and feel of our homes!

4. Robots as colleagues

Robots will become capable of taking on multiple roles in an organization, so it’s time for us to think about how we interact with our new colleagues.

5. Robots might take our jobs

Whether we like it or not, robots have changed many people in their jobs. The jobs in office administration, logistics, and transport are also at risk of being replaced. In future, many occupations are at risk of being automated, including insurance underwriters, telemarketers, and tax-return preparers etc.

6. They create jobs

Technology is changing fast and it does have economic advices. Driverless cars, for instance, are highly likely to replace cab drivers in the future. In the near future AI will most likely replace tasks, not jobs. The good news is that It will create new markets and jobs. We might need additional education and re-training for those jobs, but the opportunities will be there.

7. Autonomous cars

Driverless cars still require some human intervention these days, but we’re getting closer to the day when they won’t. Google Car, Uber Taxi etc are examples of these type driverless cars as we seen.

8. Healthcare robots

Instead of visiting a clinic or physician, who will give us check-up with simple stethoscope, we’ll have intelligent robots to do the same task with more precision. They will interact with patients, check on their conditions, and evaluate the need for further appointments.

9. Robotics for entertainment

Robots are getting more personalized, interactive and engaging. With the growth of this industry, virtual reality will enter our homes in the near future. Conversations help us communicate with our home enthusiasts, who will respond to our efforts to communicate.


Cloud Computing


Cloud computing is used in various services, such as software development platforms, servers, storage and software, over the internet, often referred to as the `cloud ‘. There are three cloud computing characteristics:

  • Back-end of the application (especially hardware) is completely managed by a cloud vendor.
  • User only pays for services used (memory, processing time and bandwidth, etc.).
  • All services are scalable

Cloud computing cannot succeed because it means that organizations must lose control of their data, such as an email provider that stores data in multiple locations around the world. Large regulated company, might be required to store data. There are issue that some companies may have with cloud computing.

Cloud computing team point to it being a new paradigm in software development, where smaller organizations have access to processing power, storage and business processes that were once only available to large enterprises. The name cloud computing comes from the traditional usage of the cloud to represent the internet or a wide area network (WAN) in network diagrams or flowcharts. Cloud computing is the delivery of different services through the internet. These resources include tools and applications like data storage, servers, databases, networking, and software.

Rather than keeping files on a proprietary hard drive or local storage device, cloud-based storage makes it possible to save them to a remote database. As long as an electronic device has access to the web, it has access to the data and the software programs to run it. Cloud computing is a popular option for people and businesses for a number of reasons including cost savings, increased productivity, speed and efficiency, performance, and security.

It is named as such because the information being accessed is found remotely in the cloud or a virtual space. Companies that provide cloud services enable users to store files and applications on remote servers, and then access all the data via the internet. It means the user is not required to be in a specific place to gain access to it, allowing the user to work remotely.

Cloud computing takes all the heavy lifting involved in crunching and processing data away from the device you carry around or sit and work at. It also moves all of that work to huge computer clusters far away in cyberspace. The internet becomes the cloud, your data, work, and applications are available from any device with which you can connect to the internet, anywhere in the world.

Cloud computing can be both public and private. Public cloud services provide their services over the internet for a fee. Private cloud services, on the other hand, only provide services to a certain number of people. These services are a system of networks that supply hosted services. There is also a hybrid option, which combine elements of both the public and private services. More information is outlined below.

Cloud computing services provide users with a series of functions including:

  • Email
  • Analyzing data
  • Creating & testing apps
  • Storage, backup, and data retrieval
  • Audio & video streaming
  • Delivering software on demand

Cloud computing is still a fairly new service, but is being used by a number of different organizations from big corporations to small businesses, nonprofits to government agencies, and even individual consumers.

Types of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is not a single piece of technology like a microchip or a cell-phone. It’s a system primarily comprised of three services: software as a service, infrastructure as a service, and platform as a service.

Software as a Service:It involves the licensure of a software application to customers. Licenses are typically provided through a pay-as-you-go model or on-demand. This type of system can be found in Microsoft Office’s 365.

Infrastructure as a Service: It involves a method for delivering everything from operating systems to servers and storage through IP-based connectivity as part of an on-demand service. Users can avoid the need to purchase software or servers, and instead procure these resources in an outsourced, on-demand service. For example, IBM Cloud and Microsoft Azure.

Platform as a Service: It is the three layers of cloud-based computing. It is considered as the most complex. It shares some similarities with Software as a Service, the primary difference being that instead of delivering software online, and it is actually a platform for creating software that is delivered via the internet. For example, Force.com and Heroku.

Advantages of Cloud Computing:

Cloud-based software offers companies from all sectors a number of benefits, including the ability to use software from any device either via a native app or a browser. Also users can carry their files and settings over to other devices in a completely seamless manner. Can access files on multiple devices. Users can check their email on any computer and even store files using services such as Dropbox and Google Drive. Cloud computing services also make it possible for users to back up their music, files, and photos, ensuring those files are immediately available in the event of a hard drive crash. It also offers big businesses huge cost-saving potential. The cloud structure allows individuals to save storage space on their desktops or laptops. It also lets users upgrade software more quickly because software companies can offer their products via the web rather than through more traditional, tangible methods involving discs or flash drives.

Disadvantages of Cloud Computing

The speed, efficiencies, and innovations that come with cloud computing, there are having highly risks. Security is a big concern with the cloud especially when it comes to sensitive medical records and financial information. While regulations force cloud computing services to shore up their security and compliance measures, it remains an ongoing issue. Servers maintained by cloud computing companies may fall victim to natural disasters, internal bugs, and power outages, too. Encryption protects vital information, if encryption key is lost, the data will disappears.




A chatbot is a service, powered by rules and sometimes artificial intelligence, that you interact with via a chat interface. The service could be any number of things, ranging from functional to fun, and it could live in any major chat product. A chatbot is a computer program that simulates human conversation through voice commands or text chats or both. Chatbot, short for chatterbot, is having an AI feature that can be embedded and used through any major messaging applications. For example, Facebook Messenger, Slack, Telegram, Text Messages, etc.

A chatbot builder, or a chatbot development platform, is an application through which one can construct a chatbot for the web, their app or for popular messaging platforms. A chatbot publishing platform on the other hand, is the channel through which the chatbot can be accessed by users. We cannot build a bot without Artificial Intelligence. We need machine learning to make the bot adapt to the information and examples. Then we need to test the capacity of the bot in the real world that would deduce certain probabilities on of which can be chosen. But only chatbot can be built with the AI.


A chatbot is sometimes referred to as a chatterbot, is programming that simulates the conversation of a human being through text or voice interactions. Chatbot virtual assistants are increasingly being used to handle simple, look-up tasks in both business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) environments. It also allows companies to provide a level of customer service during hours when agents are not available. Chatbots can have varying levels of complexity and can be stateless or stateful. A stateless chatbot approaches each conversation as if it was interacting with a new user. Chatbot allows developers to build conversational user interfaces for third-party business applications.

Most important aspect of implementing a chatbot is selecting the right natural language processing (NLP) engine. If the user interacts with the bot through voice, for example, then the chatbot requires a speech recognition engine. Chatbots built for structured conversations are highly scripted, which simplifies programming but restricts the kinds of things that the users can ask.

Business-to-business environments, the chatbots are commonly scripted & used to respond to frequently asked questions or perform simple, repetitive calls to action. In sales, for example, a chatbot may be a quick way for sales reps to get phone numbers. Chatbots can also be used in service departments, assisting service agents in answering repetitive requests. Generally, once a conversation gets too complex for a chatbot, the call or text window will be transferred to a human service agent.

Working of Chatbots:

They are built on AI technologies, including deep learning, natural language processing and machine learning algorithms, and require massive amounts of data.

The chatbots are important because, the time savings and efficiency derived from AI chatbots conversing & answering re-occurring questions is attractive to companies looking to increase sales or service productivity. As consumers continue to move away from traditional forms of communication, chat-based communication methods are expected to rise. Chatbot-based virtual assistants are increasingly used to handle simple tasks, freeing human agents to focus on higher-profile service or sales cases.

Examples of Chatbots:

  • Weather bot: Get the weather whenever you ask.
  • Grocery bot: Help me pick out and order groceries for the week.
  • News bot: Ask it to tell you when ever something interesting happens.
  • Life advice bot: It will tell problems and it helps to think of solutions.
  • Personal finance bot: It helps to manage people’s money better.
  • Scheduling bot: Get a meeting with someone on the Messenger team at Facebook.
  • A bot that’s your friend: In China there is a bot called Xiaoice, built by Microsoft, that over 20 million people talk to.

Blue Eyes Technology


The aim of the blue eyes technology is to give human power or abilities to a computer. Machine can naturally interact with human beings as we interact with each other. Main objective of Blue eyes technology is to develop a computational machine having sensory and perceptual ability like those of humans. It is almost impossible to measure the advancement of technology, it is not because there is no measuring device for it, but it is because of its immense pace with which it is moving forward. It is just because of this high-end technology that computers can now interact with us. Computers can talk, listen and feel our presence with the help of various technologies like face recognition, fingerprint, video call etc. However, it can now even sense and control the emotions and feelings of a human. Blue Eyes technology is making this possible.

The Blue Eyes technology aims at creating computational machines that have sensory ability like those of human beings. The machine can understand what a user wants, where he is looking at, and even realize his physical or emotional states. The Blue Eyes Technology developed is intended to be a complex solution for monitoring and recording the operator’s conscious brain involvement as well as his or her physiological condition. This shows yet another development in the field of Brain Computer Interface.

An Introduction to Blue Eyes Technology

Imagine yourself in a world where humans interact with computers. You are sitting in front of your personal computer that can listen, talk, or even scream aloud. It has the ability to gather information about you and interact with you through special techniques like facial recognition, speech recognition, etc. It can even understand your emotions at the touch of the mouse. It verifies your identity, feels your presence, and starts interacting with you. You ask the computer to dial to your friend at his office. It realizes the urgency of the situation through the mouse, dials your friend at his office, and establishes a connection.

Blue Eyes system consists of a mobile measuring device called Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and a central analytical system called Central System Unit (CSU) interconnected by Bluetooth. DAU collects information from the sensor and sends it over the Bluetooth and delivers the messages sent from CSU to the operator.

The basic idea behind Blue Eyes Technology is to give computer the human power i.e. It uses non-obtrusive sensing method, employing most modern video cameras and microphones to identify the user’s actions through the use of imparted sensory abilities. The blue eyes system checks the physiological parameters like eye movement, heart beat rate and blood oxygenation against abnormal and undesirable values and triggers user-defined alarms when necessary.

Blue eyes technology requires designing a personal area network linking all the operators and the supervising system. The Blue Eyes system has hardware with software loaded on it. Blue Eyes system can be applied in every working environment requiring permanent operator’s attention for it.

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The developments of the Blue Eyes:

Blue in this term stands for Bluetooth, which enables reliable wireless communication and the‚ Eyes because the eye movement enables us to obtain a lot of interesting and important information. For a computer to sense the eye movement, wiring between the operator and the system is required.

Blue Eyes Technology and its needs:

Human error is still one of the most frequent causes of tragedy and ecological disasters because the human contribution to the overall performance of the system is left unsupervised. Human operator becomes a passive observer of the supervised system, resulting in weariness and vigilance drop, but the user needs to be active. The user may not notice important changes of indications causing financial or ecological consequences, which is a threat to human life. Thus, it is crucial that operators brain is involved in an active system supervising over the whole work time period.

Technologies used in Blue Eyes Technology:

Emotional mouse: An emotional mouse is used to evaluate user’s emotion like anger, fear, happiness etc. It also helps to get behavior information (mouse movement, finger pressure) and physiological information (heart rate ECG/EKG, skin temperature).

Artificial intelligent speech recognition: In this technology input words are scanned and matched against those words which are internally stored and then for identification users speak to the computer via microphone. Those words are filtered and fed to ADC and then store in the RAM.

Manual and gaze input cascaded: This is also known as magical point. In this two magical pointing technique liberal and conservative are used to reduce the cursor movement needed for target selection.

Simple user interest tracker: Simple user interest tracker or SUITOR helps in tracking the user’s behavior through multiple channels – gaze, web browsing, application focus. By observing the user’s behavior SUITOR finds and display relevant information.


Blue Eyes Technology – Benefits

This system provides technical means for monitoring and recording human operators physiological conditions

  • Visual attention monitoring
  • Physiological condition monitoring (pulse rate, blood oxygenation) & operator’s position detection (standing, lying)
  • Physiological data, operator’s voice and overall view of the control room recording recorded data playback

Blue Eyes system can be applied in every working environment requiring permanent operator’s attention:

  • At Power Plant Control Rooms
  • At Flight Control Centers
  • For Professional Drivers


It is the way to simplify life by providing user-friendly facilities. It also helps in reducing the gap between the computer and human. Also in the future, it is quite possible to create a computer with which we can completely interact like a true buddy. The Blue eyes technology ensures a convenient way of simplifying the life by providing more delicate and user-friendly facilities in computing devices. Now that we have proven the method, the next step is to improve the hardware. Instead of using cumbersome modules to gather information about the user, it will be better to use smaller and less intrusive units. The day is not far when this technology will push its way into your household, making you lazier. The blue eyes technology meant to be a stress reliever, driven by the advanced technology of studying the facial expressions for judgment of the intensity of stress handled. These new possibilities can cover areas such as industry, transportation, military command centers or operation theaters.