rain detection

Rainwater alert system

Rain alert alarm with code

In this post we are creating an arduino based rain alert alarm circuit with the code explanation line by line.Here we also discuss about the working of the rain water sensor which includes the intensity of rain falls into the circuit

Rain water sensor working

This module works on the basics of opamp LM393, The sensor board is coated with Nickel as lines which helps analyse the moisture content in the board. when there is moisture content the resistance is low and when the board is dry the resistance will be high and the opamp amplifies the output


  • Adopts high quality of RF-04 double sided material.
  • Area: 5cm x 4cm nickel plate on side,
  • Anti-oxidation, anti-conductivity, with long use time;
  • Comparator output signal clean waveform is good, driving ability, over 15mA;
  • Potentiometer adjust the sensitivity;
  • Working voltage 5V;
  • Output format: Digital switching output (0 and 1) and analog voltage output AO;
  • With bolt holes for easy installation;
  • Small board PCB size: 3.2cm x 1.4cm;
  • Uses a wide voltage LM393 comparator

Arduino code

//paste this code in arduino IDE 

const int sensorMin = 0; // set minimum sensor value 

const int sensorMax = 1024; //set maximum sensor value

//void setup is single time running program in Arduino 

void setup()


Serial.begin(9600);//here we initialize the baud rate to 9600


//loops are continuously executing the programme in Arduino programming

void loop() 


  int sensorReading = analogRead(A0); //to read analog value from the A0 pin

  int range = map(sensorReading, sensorMin, sensorMax, 0, 3); //map funtion to map the values to our rated range 

  switch (range) 


    case 0: // Sensor getting completely wet



    case 1: // Sensor getting partially wet

      Serial.println(“RAIN WARNING”);


    case 2: // Sensor dry

      Serial.println(“NOT RAINING”);



  delay(1000); //delay 1 second




How blockchain works – the simple explanation

How blockchain works - the simple explanation


Blockchain is very popular nowadays, But What is a blockchain? Why the world is going behind the blockchain. Let us make a simple explanation about this stunning technology.

As the name implies, Blockchain is a chain of blocks that contains information or data.

Blockchain is initially developed by a group of engineers to make the document more secure or once the document is created it will not tamper like a notary attestation, But the project was a big failure until in 2009 Satoshi Nakamoto invented bitcoin with the help of Blockchain technology. The Blockchain is like a distributed ledger that is completely open to everyone but even it is easily accessible it doesn’t mean it is easily editable means once data is inserted into a blockchain it is very difficult to edit the information, let’s check hows its works 

In the case of blockchain, each block contains 3 types of information which are data, the hash of the block, hash of the previous block



Types of information

  1. Data: The data stored inside the blockchain depend on which type of blockchain is used, for example in the case of blockchain we use it to store information like sender, Amount, receiver etc
  2. Hash: Hash can be compared like the fingerprint, Hash is unique and it identifies all of its content and hash is calculated after creating each block so it uses to detect the block needed to change
  3. Hash of the previous block: So by adding the previous hash it can be helpful to create a chain of the block, so by tampering any block will affect the entire system, This makes the Blockchain more secure

Proof of work

Nowadays computers are so fast so they can calculate all the hash and make the chain reactive again, So they use another mechanism for slows down the creation of chain which is called proof of work 

P2P network

Blockchain uses peer to peer network instead of a central entity, So when a new block is added it will send to all the members and each node will verify the new block so it’s very hard to tamper with the block because at least we need control over 50% of the entire network to change the data of blockchain

Flipkart EVs OK

Flipkart hands with Mahindra & Logistics; further distribution with electric vehicles

Flipkart hands with Mahindra & Logistics; further distribution with electric vehicles


Flipkart, India’s leading e-commerce company, has partnered with Mahindra Logistics Ltd (MLL) to make electric vehicles (EVs) in the country’s logistics space.

Flipkart will launch 25,000 electric vehicles to meet its commitment to become 100 percent electric vehicles in the logistics space by 2030. Mahindra Logistics will play a key role in the transformation of Flipkart into EV.

At the end of 2020, Mahindra Logistics will enter into its own electric delivery brand, EDEL. EDEL operates delivery services in six cities across the country in collaboration with consumer and e-commerce companies. The supply chain of Flipkart through ML EDEL is deploying large EV Fleet. Infrastructure such as charging stations, parking lots, staff training, route planning and battery transfer centers will be provided. Control towers and technologies will be used for greater efficiency.

Flipkart has partnered with several other manufacturers to supply electric two- and three-wheelers. It will be expanded across the country in collaboration with MLL EDEL. MLL will purchase a wide range of electric vehicles through EDEL, an electric delivery brand. EDEL currently has a large fleet of electric vehicles. This will be increased in the coming months to make Flipkart’s goal possible. EDEL will expand its presence in Bengaluru, Mumbai, Delhi, Pune, Kolkata and Hyderabad to 20 more cities by the end of the year. This will make the delivery of Flipkart seamless. The electrification of the logistics fleet is the main focus of Flipkart’s sustainable goal. They are pleased to partner with Mahindra Logistics as a key logistics partner in helping to achieve the vision of fully electrifying their logistics fleet by 2030. Through joint efforts, the fleet will gradually switch to 100% electric vehicles across the country, said Hemant Badri, senior vice president, supply chain, Flipkart Group. Mahindra Logistics is committed to sustainability in line with their philosophy. EDEL, the EV-based final mile delivery service, is deployed and enables final mile delivery by providing customers with sustainable and low-cost technology. Their focus is on expanding their network based on partnerships with large enterprises.


IR Remote Control Light Switch

To turn ON/OFF home appliances, we can use IR remote control system switch with any IR enabled remotes. The TSOP1738 IR Receiver( or TSOP1736) used here to receive the signals from remotes. These IR sensor having the capability to receiving 36 KHz IR signals from any remotes.

The timer circuit used here is to take the output from IR sensor. Then it is possible to control light or any other appliances.


circuit diagram

IR Remote Control Light Switch

components required

  1. TSOP 1738
  2. IC 7805
  3. IC 555
  4. IC 4017
  5. 9V Relay
  6. Transistor BC547
  7. Diode 1N4007
  8. Resistor 100KΩ = 2, 330Ω
  9. Capacitor 0.01μF = 2, 10μF
  10. Battery 9V

Construction & Working

This relay circuit required 9V supply and it get from battery. This circuit receives any IR signals from any IR remotes and make it turn ON/OFF electrical appliances. For a sample, we can choose a common bulb here to glow the circuit up. The bulb is connected in relay as between common and Normally-Open terminals of the relay.

LM7805 is the 5V regulator IC used here for supply to IR sensor, timer and counter IC. The output of sensor TSOP 1738 is connected with timer IC’s trigger Pin. The IR signals Received by TSOP 1738, produce output and triggers the timer IC. Here, timer IC is configured as mono-stable multi-vibrator and hence produce single pulse signals depends on the timer Resistor R2 and Capacitor C2 values.

The timer output is applied to clock input of IC4017 and this IC counts the clock. If the count begins from zero, then transistor Q1 output becomes high and then BC547 transistor gets turn ON and it makes the relay connected with ground. Then, relay coil get power and attracts the level to Normally-Opened contact. Then the bulb gets power supply and it will start glowing.

If the count begins from one (Q1 is high) then output of Q2 becomes high. And the signal biased to reset pin 15 and hence everything on counter gets reset. So, the transistor Q1 becomes low (zero), then transistor becomes turn OFF. So, the relay also gets turn OFF. This leads to the disconnection of bulb from supply and bulb become OFF.


Face recognition based door locking system

The security sector is experiencing diversification. This has brought about
the need to review the reliability of already existing systems and look into the possibility of creating better systems that are smarter and more secure. The old door security systems made use of keys, locks and chains. However, the locks can be easily broken and keys can get stolen or can be duplicated. In order to overcome this drawback, mechanical locking system was
introduced, that is, latches were used. Latches had better security than the
locks. Although, latches cannot be broken as easily as the locks, they make
the use of keys, which are not so reliable and can get stolen. Further, to
avoid these drawbacks, password based system was introduced. This
system used numeric combination to permit entrance to user.


But security is entirely based on confidentiality and the strength of the password.Modification was made in the password from numeric to alpha-numeric.Security describes protection of life and property. moved to biometric security system to ensure better security. Biometric security system includes fingerprint based system was the first biometric locking system. Using the fingerprints of a person for unlocking the door is main parameter for this system. However, like any other systems, they also have drawbacks. Fingerprints of a person can be duplicated. This can lead to opening of the door for unauthorized person. Finally research moved to image processing system. This system provides high security. When a person wants to access his locker, initially at the main door of locker and PIR sensor will be placed. This sensor will sense the body temperature of a person, standing near the door. And then, his/her image will be captured by
the camera installed at the main gate. This image will be given to the PC
where the Python software will compare this image with the authentic
images stored in the PC. If authentic, then only the door will open otherwise
it will remain closed and the alarm will buzz for further action.


Drowsy driver detection

Drowsy driver detection is one of the potential applications of intelligent vehicle systems. Previous approaches to drowsiness detection primarily make pre-assumptions about the relevant behavior, focusing on blink rate, eye closure, and yawning. Here we employ machine learning to datamine actual human behavior during drowsiness episodes.


Automatic classifiers for facial actions from the facial action coding system were developed using machine learning on a separate database of spontaneous expressions. These facial actions include blinking and yawn motions, as well as a number of other facial movements



Soil prediction for modern agriculture


Agriculture is a non technical sector where in technology can be incorporated for the betterment. Agricultural technology needs to be quick inimplementation and easy in adoption. Farmers usually follow a method called crop mutation after every consequent crop yield. The crop mutation allowsthe soil to regain the minerals that were used by the crop previously and use the left over minerals for cultivating the new crop. To know if the soil hasreached the point where it is unfit to yield the particular crop, farmer has to experience a loss in yield. One financial year for a farmer is very crucial toaccept the loss. This paper implements a that would help in maintaining the soil fertility consistently.


This method is traditionally implemented in manycountries where the change in crop is done after a loss in yield for cultivating the same crop continuously. There are soil parameters that come into consideration when we have to predict the soil quality. This method suggests the solution for the above stated problem using Machine Learning Techniques. This paper suggests a software enabled solution considering crucial soil parameters and soil factors to predict the soil quality.



Hacking prevention for IOT using python

IoT (Internet of Things) is a current technology for sending and receiving the sensor data via internet networks so hacking prevention for IOT is most important in these days. It is same like normal data communication except that in IoT, sensors and microcontrollers are usually used. They are expected to explore, and there will be a growing interest in the IoT platform that provides the common functions of IoT devices.It
Links devices to the Internet and exchanges its data also enables us to monitor and control the real world. IoT systems make use of data in the real world and the data collected from devices can also be a target of cyber-attacks. There are many software solutions existing but technology had changed a lot even software solution can also be in threat.


Project explanation

In this project we propose a device which will act like a hack preventing device and gives an alert to the admin when an attempt is made to hack the IoT deviceIn our product we aim at providing a most secured device which will act like a switch between the IoT devices and the cloud. IoT (Internet of Things) is a current technology for sending a received the sensor data via internet networks. It is same like normal data communication except that in IoT, sensors and microcontrollers are usually used. The sending and receiving of data do not rely on the computer but relies on the microcontroller and portable communication devices such as cell phone, communication pad or even the smart watch with IoT, most of the sensors data can
be directly routed into the server.IoT (Internet of Things) is a collaborative environment of connected, intelligent and context-aware devices. It has been successfully realized as a main part of the 4th industrial revolution based on the rapid development of the cloud, communication technologies, sensor, etc. in contrast with the Ubiquitous. The biggest threat
to the future of IoT is data protection. Hardware in the form of Architectural techniques only. They only detect the attack and there is no preventive measures. It will break the IoT function while a large data flow occur. It is not that much safe to install. In this project we propose a device which will act like a hack preventing device and gives an alert to the
admin when an attempt is made to hack the IoT device it will act like a fuse or a switch that will turn off the connection when there is an excess flow of data through the IOT device and will never crash the IoT device or its data but will disconnect any other hacking sources and makes the system secure.



Automatic Temperature Controlled Switch

We can make control temperature using this Automatic Temperature Controlled Switch circuit; it will make control temperature automatically. LM35 is the temperature sensor used in this circuit for detection of temperature and also it helps to turn ON/OFF the output devices or appliances.
Once we tune the LM35’s sensitivity level of temperature, the circuit becomes control as an automatic switch. Easily available components can be used for developing this circuit prototype with small PCB boards like line/dot PCBs.




Construction & Working

Regulator unit and rectifier are the first stage of this circuit. 110V to 220V AC Supply is the input voltage and it is converted into 9V AC by using step-down transformer. After that, it is being rectified into DC voltage using bridge rectifier. Capacitor C1 reacts as filter to remove AC ripples then using 7805 regulator IC regulates provides constant 5V DC Voltage Supply.
LM35 is the temperature sensor used in this circuit and it gives an output voltage linearly proportional to the centigrade temperature. And an operational amplifier LM358 used here to help us to choose the temperature level through the variable resistor, VR1 and output of this Op-Amp is drives the transistor, Q1. In between +5V DC and collector terminal of the transistor Q1, the relay coil has been connected. When output voltage is higher than 2.5V from Op-Amp transistor Q1 turns ON and it connect the relay coil to neutral/ground. Hence, the coil gets power and makes the Normally-Open contact to Normally-Closed one. So, we can control electrical loads or an appliance automatically depends on temperature.



AC Powered 230V LED Circuit

AC powered 230V LED circuit is less cost effective and looks simple. We are using high bright white LEDs and those are connected to the AC source with the support of some rectification components without any step-down transformers.

So, the cost of this circuit has fewer prices in electronics market and the output light cost likewise too.

Circuit Diagram

led power circuit

Construction & Working

This circuit helps to light some LEDs without any step-down transformers. Polyester capacitor (0.47µF / 400V), Resistor 470KΩ 1/4 Watt and Bridge rectifier components are used to step-down the AC Power supply. Due to barrier generated by these components, AC remains reduced to lower level and then is converted in to DC Power Supply.


At the output of bridge rectifier, filters DC output using 47µF/25V electrolytic capacitor. The Zener diode 16V/1 watt regulates DC output from the rectifier. In this circuit, there are 5 high bright LEDs are connected in series and powered by the rectifier circuit. When power is ON, the resistor and polyester capacitor gives barrier to the AC mains and it reduces into lower level. The bridge will convert this lower AC into DC and the filter capacitor, Zener diodes are regulates the DC output. At the end of this process, the DC supply voltage will given to the LED array.


Note: This circuit operating on High Voltage. Attention for Handle with Extreme care.

Polyester Capacitor

The Voltage dropping capacitor (0.47uF / 400V or 474k / 400V X) rated capacitor is a power line filter capacitor. These are mostly used for to reduce the AC power supply through Capacitive Reactance property.