IR Remote Control Light Switch

To turn ON/OFF home appliances, we can use IR remote control system switch with any IR enabled remotes. The TSOP1738 IR Receiver( or TSOP1736) used here to receive the signals from remotes. These IR sensor having the capability to receiving 36 KHz IR signals from any remotes.

The timer circuit used here is to take the output from IR sensor. Then it is possible to control light or any other appliances.

circuit diagram

IR Remote Control Light Switch

components required

  1. TSOP 1738
  2. IC 7805
  3. IC 555
  4. IC 4017
  5. 9V Relay
  6. Transistor BC547
  7. Diode 1N4007
  8. Resistor 100KΩ = 2, 330Ω
  9. Capacitor 0.01μF = 2, 10μF
  10. Battery 9V

Construction & Working

This relay circuit required 9V supply and it get from battery. This circuit receives any IR signals from any IR remotes and make it turn ON/OFF electrical appliances. For a sample, we can choose a common bulb here to glow the circuit up. The bulb is connected in relay as between common and Normally-Open terminals of the relay.

LM7805 is the 5V regulator IC used here for supply to IR sensor, timer and counter IC. The output of sensor TSOP 1738 is connected with timer IC’s trigger Pin. The IR signals Received by TSOP 1738, produce output and triggers the timer IC. Here, timer IC is configured as mono-stable multi-vibrator and hence produce single pulse signals depends on the timer Resistor R2 and Capacitor C2 values.

The timer output is applied to clock input of IC4017 and this IC counts the clock. If the count begins from zero, then transistor Q1 output becomes high and then BC547 transistor gets turn ON and it makes the relay connected with ground. Then, relay coil get power and attracts the level to Normally-Opened contact. Then the bulb gets power supply and it will start glowing.

If the count begins from one (Q1 is high) then output of Q2 becomes high. And the signal biased to reset pin 15 and hence everything on counter gets reset. So, the transistor Q1 becomes low (zero), then transistor becomes turn OFF. So, the relay also gets turn OFF. This leads to the disconnection of bulb from supply and bulb become OFF.


Face recognition based door locking system

The security sector is experiencing diversification. This has brought about
the need to review the reliability of already existing systems and look into the possibility of creating better systems that are smarter and more secure. The old door security systems made use of keys, locks and chains. However, the locks can be easily broken and keys can get stolen or can be duplicated. In order to overcome this drawback, mechanical locking system was
introduced, that is, latches were used. Latches had better security than the
locks. Although, latches cannot be broken as easily as the locks, they make
the use of keys, which are not so reliable and can get stolen. Further, to
avoid these drawbacks, password based system was introduced. This
system used numeric combination to permit entrance to user.


But security is entirely based on confidentiality and the strength of the password.Modification was made in the password from numeric to alpha-numeric.Security describes protection of life and property. moved to biometric security system to ensure better security. Biometric security system includes fingerprint based system was the first biometric locking system. Using the fingerprints of a person for unlocking the door is main parameter for this system. However, like any other systems, they also have drawbacks. Fingerprints of a person can be duplicated. This can lead to opening of the door for unauthorized person. Finally research moved to image processing system. This system provides high security. When a person wants to access his locker, initially at the main door of locker and PIR sensor will be placed. This sensor will sense the body temperature of a person, standing near the door. And then, his/her image will be captured by
the camera installed at the main gate. This image will be given to the PC
where the Python software will compare this image with the authentic
images stored in the PC. If authentic, then only the door will open otherwise
it will remain closed and the alarm will buzz for further action.


Drowsy driver detection

Drowsy driver detection is one of the potential applications of intelligent vehicle systems. Previous approaches to drowsiness detection primarily make pre-assumptions about the relevant behavior, focusing on blink rate, eye closure, and yawning. Here we employ machine learning to datamine actual human behavior during drowsiness episodes.


Automatic classifiers for facial actions from the facial action coding system were developed using machine learning on a separate database of spontaneous expressions. These facial actions include blinking and yawn motions, as well as a number of other facial movements



Soil prediction for modern agriculture


Agriculture is a non technical sector where in technology can be incorporated for the betterment. Agricultural technology needs to be quick inimplementation and easy in adoption. Farmers usually follow a method called crop mutation after every consequent crop yield. The crop mutation allowsthe soil to regain the minerals that were used by the crop previously and use the left over minerals for cultivating the new crop. To know if the soil hasreached the point where it is unfit to yield the particular crop, farmer has to experience a loss in yield. One financial year for a farmer is very crucial toaccept the loss. This paper implements a that would help in maintaining the soil fertility consistently.


This method is traditionally implemented in manycountries where the change in crop is done after a loss in yield for cultivating the same crop continuously. There are soil parameters that come into consideration when we have to predict the soil quality. This method suggests the solution for the above stated problem using Machine Learning Techniques. This paper suggests a software enabled solution considering crucial soil parameters and soil factors to predict the soil quality.



Hacking prevention for IOT using python

IoT (Internet of Things) is a current technology for sending and receiving the sensor data via internet networks so hacking prevention for IOT is most important in these days. It is same like normal data communication except that in IoT, sensors and microcontrollers are usually used. They are expected to explore, and there will be a growing interest in the IoT platform that provides the common functions of IoT devices.It
Links devices to the Internet and exchanges its data also enables us to monitor and control the real world. IoT systems make use of data in the real world and the data collected from devices can also be a target of cyber-attacks. There are many software solutions existing but technology had changed a lot even software solution can also be in threat.


Project explanation

In this project we propose a device which will act like a hack preventing device and gives an alert to the admin when an attempt is made to hack the IoT deviceIn our product we aim at providing a most secured device which will act like a switch between the IoT devices and the cloud. IoT (Internet of Things) is a current technology for sending a received the sensor data via internet networks. It is same like normal data communication except that in IoT, sensors and microcontrollers are usually used. The sending and receiving of data do not rely on the computer but relies on the microcontroller and portable communication devices such as cell phone, communication pad or even the smart watch with IoT, most of the sensors data can
be directly routed into the server.IoT (Internet of Things) is a collaborative environment of connected, intelligent and context-aware devices. It has been successfully realized as a main part of the 4th industrial revolution based on the rapid development of the cloud, communication technologies, sensor, etc. in contrast with the Ubiquitous. The biggest threat
to the future of IoT is data protection. Hardware in the form of Architectural techniques only. They only detect the attack and there is no preventive measures. It will break the IoT function while a large data flow occur. It is not that much safe to install. In this project we propose a device which will act like a hack preventing device and gives an alert to the
admin when an attempt is made to hack the IoT device it will act like a fuse or a switch that will turn off the connection when there is an excess flow of data through the IOT device and will never crash the IoT device or its data but will disconnect any other hacking sources and makes the system secure.



Automatic Temperature Controlled Switch

We can make control temperature using this circuit; it will make control temperature automatically. LM35 is the temperature sensor used in this circuit for detection of temperature and also it helps to turn ON/OFF the output devices or appliances.
Once we tune the LM35’s sensitivity level of temperature, the circuit becomes control as an automatic switch. Easily available components can be used for developing this circuit prototype with small PCB boards like line/dot PCBs.




Construction & Working

Regulator unit and rectifier are the first stage of this circuit. 110V to 220V AC Supply is the input voltage and it is converted into 9V AC by using step-down transformer. After that, it is being rectified into DC voltage using bridge rectifier. Capacitor C1 reacts as filter to remove AC ripples then using 7805 regulator IC regulates provides constant 5V DC Voltage Supply.
LM35 is the temperature sensor used in this circuit and it gives an output voltage linearly proportional to the centigrade temperature. And an operational amplifier LM358 used here to help us to choose the temperature level through the variable resistor, VR1 and output of this Op-Amp is drives the transistor, Q1. In between +5V DC and collector terminal of the transistor Q1, the relay coil has been connected. When output voltage is higher than 2.5V from Op-Amp transistor Q1 turns ON and it connect the relay coil to neutral/ground. Hence, the coil gets power and makes the Normally-Open contact to Normally-Closed one. So, we can control electrical loads or an appliance automatically depends on temperature.



AC Powered 230V LED Circuit

AC powered 230V LED circuit is less cost effective and looks simple. We are using high bright white LEDs and those are connected to the AC source with the support of some rectification components without any step-down transformers.

So, the cost of this circuit has fewer prices in electronics market and the output light cost likewise too.

Circuit Diagram

led power circuit

Construction & Working

This circuit helps to light some LEDs without any step-down transformers. Polyester capacitor (0.47µF / 400V), Resistor 470KΩ 1/4 Watt and Bridge rectifier components are used to step-down the AC Power supply. Due to barrier generated by these components, AC remains reduced to lower level and then is converted in to DC Power Supply.


At the output of bridge rectifier, filters DC output using 47µF/25V electrolytic capacitor. The Zener diode 16V/1 watt regulates DC output from the rectifier. In this circuit, there are 5 high bright LEDs are connected in series and powered by the rectifier circuit. When power is ON, the resistor and polyester capacitor gives barrier to the AC mains and it reduces into lower level. The bridge will convert this lower AC into DC and the filter capacitor, Zener diodes are regulates the DC output. At the end of this process, the DC supply voltage will given to the LED array.


Note: This circuit operating on High Voltage. Attention for Handle with Extreme care.

Polyester Capacitor

The Voltage dropping capacitor (0.47uF / 400V or 474k / 400V X) rated capacitor is a power line filter capacitor. These are mostly used for to reduce the AC power supply through Capacitive Reactance property.


12v to 220v inverter DIY circuit

Inverters are made for producing high voltage from low voltage DC sources/batteries. We are here to design an inverter circuit for converting 12V DC source into 220V AC power. Its components are easily available in our electronics markets and so easy to build on PCB boards.


Operations of this kind of inverters are based on switching pulses and were uses step-up transformers. So, the CD4047 microcontroller acts as a switching pulse oscillator and IRFZ44N (N-channel power MOSFET) acts as it’s switch. Then the 12-0-12 secondary transformer will inversely used as a step-up transformer.

Inverter Circuit Diagram


Components Required

  1. Micro-controller CD4047
  2. Power MOSFET IRFZ44 = 2.
  3. 12-0-12V secondary transformer 1 amps
  4. Variable Resistor 22KΩ
  5. Resistors 100Ω / 10 watts = 2
  6. capacitor 0.22µF
  7. 12 volt battery

Construction & Working

This inverter circuit has switch device and step-up transformer. As per the theories, high switch frequency pulse reaches the step up transformer and due to the mutual inductance; output voltage will reach high value.

The microcontroller CD 4047 is configured as an astable multi-vibrator mode with the help of variable resistor RV1 and capacitor C1. By varying the value of RV1, we will collect different range of output pulse at Q and Q’ pins. These all results the variation of output voltage at the step-up transformer.

The IRFZ44 (N-channel power MOSFET) will drain, pins are connected with secondary pins of the transformer and common pin connected with the secondary winding and is connected with battery positive bias. Both MOSFETs source pins are connected to the negative bias of battery. And these are driven by Q and Q’ output from CD4047 micro-controller. If an alternate square pulse drives the MOSFETs switches, the secondary winding may forced to induce alternate magnetic field. This magnetic field induce primary winding of transformer and will produce high alternate voltage.

Note: High AC voltage circuit. Attention for handle with extreme care.



Organic electronics


Organics electronics used Flexible electronic circuits, displays, and sensors based on organic active materials will enable future generations of electronics products that may eventually enter the mainstream electronics market. The motivations in using organic active materials come from their ease in tuning electronic and processing properties by chemical design and synthesis, low cost processing based on low temperature processes and reel-to-reel printing methods, mechanical flexibility, and compatibility with flexible substrates. Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) are the basic building blocks for flexible integrated circuits and displays.

During the operation of the transistor, a gate electrode is used to control the current flow between the drain and source electrodes. Typically, a higher applied gate voltage leads to higher current flow between drain and source electrodes. The semiconductor material for a fast switching transistor should have high charge carrier mobility and on/off current ratio.

Organic Semiconductors

There are two types of organic semiconductors based on the type of majority charge carriers: p-type (holes as major charge carriers) and n-type (electrons as major charge carriers). To facilitate charge transport, the organic semiconductor layer usually consists of p-conjugated polymers, in which the p–p stacking direction should ideally be along the current flow direction. This requires the semiconductor molecules to self-assemble into a certain orientation upon either vapor or solution deposition. It is also important that the semiconductor thin film has large, densely packed and well-interconnected grains. Most small molecule, high performance organic semiconductors tend to have the long axes of the molecules oriented close to normal to the dielectric surface with the typical grain size in the order of at least a few micrometers. In case of solution processed semiconducting polymers, it is preferred for the p-conjugated plane to adapt an edge-on orientation on the surface.

The morphology of the semiconductor film is highly dependent on the chemical and physical nature of the dielectric surface. Patterning of dielectric surface can lead to selective patterning of the organic semiconductor in desired locations, which is important to reduce cross talk between devices. With proper control of the dielectric surface, arrays of organic semiconductor single crystals can be patterned over a large area for high performance transistors.

Dielectric Materials

The dielectric layer for organic transistors should be as thin as possible, pinhole-free, and ideally with a high dielectric constant for low voltage operation. Inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic hybrid materials have been investigated as the gate dielectric materials. Promising materials include poly(methy methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(styrene), poly(vinyl phenol), silsesquioxane (glass resin), and benzocyclobutene (BCB), etc. Crosslinked polymers generally are more robust as ultrathin dielectric materials. Even a well-ordered densely packed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) may be used as the thinnest possible high quality dielectric layer. Incorporation of high dielectric constant inorganic nanoparticles into a polymer matrix boosts the overall dielectric constant of the thin film.

Electrode Materials

For organic transistors to function properly, charge injection from the electrode needs to be efficient. This requires the work function of the electrode to match well with the energy level of the organic semiconductor such that the energy barrier for charge injection is low. Typically high work function electrodes (Au, Pd, or indium tin oxide) have been used for p-channel organic transistors. Electrode surface modification with a self-assembled monolayer can be used to improve the charge injection into the organic semiconductor. When the organic semiconductor is deposited onto the source and drain electrodes, the morphology of organic semiconductors is significantly different.
In summary, organic materials are promising candidates for flexible electronic devices. Significant progress has already been made in this field. Nevertheless, better understanding of the structure property relationship is still needed so that we can rationally design materials to achieve desired device performance parameters.

New n-Type Polymeric Semiconductors

The unifying basic requirement of most thin-film, organic electronic devices like OLEDs and OPVs is that they contain at least two semiconducting materials with offsets in their molecular orbital energy levels. In the organic semiconductor world, one can create such an energy offset by forming an interface between a more electron-rich (p-type) semiconductor and an electron-poor (n-type) material. It is at this interface that charge separation or recombination typically occurs. There are a number of available classes of relatively electron-rich, p-type semiconducting molecules and polymers. In contrast, there are few electron-poor, n-type semiconducting molecules, like metalloporphyrins and methanofullerenes. Even rarer are the n-type semiconducting, p-conjugated polymers like cyanoderivatives of poly(p-phenylenevinylenes).

High Efficiency In Organic Light-Emitting Devices

Hetero-structure OLEDs Electroluminescence of organic molecules has been a wellknown phenomenon for more than 50 years. Successful application of organic luminescence in light-emitting devices required device structures that overcame the problems associated with the high resistivity of organic materials, and achieved a well-balanced charge injection from the electrodes into organics. These two problems were solved by Tang and van Slyke3 with the thin film heterostructure concept for the organic LEDs (OLEDs).

oled hexcodeplus

OLEDs have promise to make a marked impact in full color displays and lighting applications. Both of these families of devices require high efficiency and long lifetime, as well as low-cost fabrication, a wide-gamut for sets of devices and high color saturation. OLEDs have demonstrated all of these properties; however, large area fabrication remains a significant challenge, making manufacturing costs quite high. Another technological challenge is the device lifetimes for deep blue devices. There are a large number of stable red and green phosphorescent emitters, giving device lifetimes approaching 106 hours. In contrast, the operational stability of the blue phosphor based OLEDs are typically markedly shorter, with the best values between 15K and 20K hours. The source of the enhanced instability of these blue devices is still an open question. While many fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs have been commercialized in small area mobile displays, there is still ample room for scientific investigation to better understand the parameters controlling and limiting organic electroluminescence.

Light-Emitting Polymers

Switching between doped and un-doped states induces changes in a number of Light Emitting Polymer (LEP) properties, such as polymer volume, absorption color, and reversible PL quenching. These controlled changes make LEPs promising for applications: an induced variation in absorption color may be exploited for electro-chromic displays while a change in volume may be utilized for electro-active artificial polymer muscles. The combination of semi-conductivity and intense PL results in LEP electro-luminescence and their use in polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs). The high sensitivity of PL quenching to doping or charge transfer can be used to detect biological and explosive species. Therefore, the LEPs represent an important category of low-temperature processable materials useful for many scientific and technological explorations. PLEDs are currently under development for applications in flat panel displays and lighting with strong commercialization potential that depends on understanding and improvement of properties of the LEPs.

High-performance PLED requires the LEP layer to meet several stringent requirements:
1. Color purity, which is determined by the polymer band-gap and film morphology
2. Matching of ionization potentials and electron affinities between LEP and the different electrode materials
3. High PL quantum efficiency
4. Chemical and thermal stability
5. Processability which involves solubility, solution viscosity, and solvent-substrate compatibility.


Virtual Reality


Virtual Reality is an interactive computer-generated experience and use of computer technology to create a simulated environment. VR helps the user to experience from inside, Instead of viewing a screen in front of them, users are immersed and able to interact with 3D worlds using VR head mounted displays. In VR Technology, most commonly uses virtual reality headsets (HMD’s) or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments, to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that simulate a user’s physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment.

VR can be used in various fields such as academic research through to engineering, design, business, the arts and entertainment. Also virtual reality produces a set of data which is then used to develop new models, training methods, communication and interaction.

Virtual Reality can be applied in various fields :

VR can be used in medical studies to enable students to know the human body structure.
VR can be used in scientific research laboratories so that scientist can easily research on a specific topic.
VR can be used in entertaiment like in games and movies to make the gaming experience more real and to allow individual to experience adventures under extreme conditions.
AVRDude (Software that programs the microcontroller on Arduino), and VR can be used in driving schools as it give a real look of roads and traffic.
VR can be used in military training for the soldiers to get familiar with different areas in the battlefield.

Advantages of Virtual Reality:

Virtual reality creates a realistic like world in virtually
It enables user to explore places in virtually.
Through Virtual Reality user can experiment with an artificial environment.
Virtual Reality make the education more easily and comfort.

Disadvantages of Virtual Reality:

  • The equipment used in virtual reality are very expensive (Example: HTC Vive)
  • It consists of complex technology.
  • In virtual reality environment we can’t move by our own like in the real world.

Applications of Virtual Reality:

Using VR exposure therapy, a person enters a re-enactment of a traumatic event. It has also been used to treat anxiety, phobias and depression. Virtual reality technology can provide a safe environment for patients to come into contact with things they fear, whilst remaining in a controlled and safe environment.

And we describing some more applications here below:

  • Training & Education
  • Entertainment & Gaming
  • Help & Healing
  • Architecture & Planning
  1. Training & Education
    A virtual reality simulator enables someone to learn basics without any accident himself or others and their property. VR also may reduce liability exposure for the driver-training school. Also helps to military trainings. Immersive experiences also enable medical students to test surgical skills without live patients. In some situations, VR provides the only safe environment in which to gain advanced or even basic skills. VR that models the real world poorly leads to faulty training results.
  2. Entertainment & Gaming
    VR helps to enter and participate users into imaginary worlds, turning watching a screen into living an experience. Some VR headsets carry a high price tag, especially for proprietary closed-face designs. Wearing them for long periods of time produces fatigue and an unsettling feeling of enclosure. In some cases, VR leads to make results that interfere with the ability to perceive and react to real experiences, or that encourage the choice of VR over real life.
  3. Help & Healing
    Simulating terrible events can help military service members work through some of the effects of terrible stress disorder that result from fight. VR also can assist in treating phobias, especially those that involve handling or being near specific animals, environments or objects. VR holds promise in physical rehabilitation, providing patients with opportunities to refine ambulatory or other skills in a clinic setting before moving on to the real-life equivalent.
  4. Architecture & Planning
    Virtual reality technology into architectural design & urban planning helps decision makers visualize the outcomes of proposed development and renewal of designs. Early versions of this up, but coming use of VR combined computer-aided design with geographic information systems to produce a virtual world in a Web browser. That websites can serve up fly-through reconstructions of real cities, the move to fully immersive experiences only requires the ability to incorporate the onscreen view into a VR headset. Meanwhile, augmented reality projects virtual information onto a real-world scene with incorporating new graphical objects /adding notations.