AC powered 230V LED circuit is less cost effective and looks simple. We are using high bright white LEDs and those are connected to the AC source with the support of some rectification components without any step-down transformers.
So, the cost of this circuit has fewer prices in electronics market and the output light cost likewise too.
Construction & Working
This circuit helps to light some LEDs without any step-down transformers. Polyester capacitor (0.47µF / 400V), Resistor 470KΩ 1/4 Watt and Bridge rectifier components are used to step-down the AC Power supply. Due to barrier generated by these components, AC remains reduced to lower level and then is converted in to DC Power Supply.
At the output of bridge rectifier, filters DC output using 47µF/25V electrolytic capacitor. The Zener diode 16V/1 watt regulates DC output from the rectifier. In this circuit, there are 5 high bright LEDs are connected in series and powered by the rectifier circuit. When power is ON, the resistor and polyester capacitor gives barrier to the AC mains and it reduces into lower level. The bridge will convert this lower AC into DC and the filter capacitor, Zener diodes are regulates the DC output. At the end of this process, the DC supply voltage will given to the LED array.
Note: This circuit operating on High Voltage. Attention for Handle with Extreme care.
The Voltage dropping capacitor (0.47uF / 400V or 474k / 400V X) rated capacitor is a power line filter capacitor. These are mostly used for to reduce the AC power supply through Capacitive Reactance property.