The smart dustbin is an Arduino based project which is an innovative method to keep the city clean, top of the dustbin will open automatically when a person approaches the dustbin and get closed when he returns

smart dust bin

Working principle

Ultrasonic sensor work based on the ultrasonic sound, ultrasonic sensor continuously monitor the echo signal and detect the obstacle in front of the device if the obstacle is within the threshold range by using a mathematical formula (Distance (in cm) = (duration/2) / 29). then microcontroller and make a decision to open the cap of the dustbin by using a servo motor ,



IR Remote Control Light Switch

To turn ON/OFF home appliances, we can use IR remote control system switch with any IR enabled remotes. The TSOP1738 IR Receiver( or TSOP1736) used here to receive the signals from remotes. These IR sensor having the capability to receiving 36 KHz IR signals from any remotes.

The timer circuit used here is to take the output from IR sensor. Then it is possible to control light or any other appliances.


circuit diagram

IR Remote Control Light Switch

components required

  1. TSOP 1738
  2. IC 7805
  3. IC 555
  4. IC 4017
  5. 9V Relay
  6. Transistor BC547
  7. Diode 1N4007
  8. Resistor 100KΩ = 2, 330Ω
  9. Capacitor 0.01μF = 2, 10μF
  10. Battery 9V

Construction & Working

This relay circuit required 9V supply and it get from battery. This circuit receives any IR signals from any IR remotes and make it turn ON/OFF electrical appliances. For a sample, we can choose a common bulb here to glow the circuit up. The bulb is connected in relay as between common and Normally-Open terminals of the relay.

LM7805 is the 5V regulator IC used here for supply to IR sensor, timer and counter IC. The output of sensor TSOP 1738 is connected with timer IC’s trigger Pin. The IR signals Received by TSOP 1738, produce output and triggers the timer IC. Here, timer IC is configured as mono-stable multi-vibrator and hence produce single pulse signals depends on the timer Resistor R2 and Capacitor C2 values.

The timer output is applied to clock input of IC4017 and this IC counts the clock. If the count begins from zero, then transistor Q1 output becomes high and then BC547 transistor gets turn ON and it makes the relay connected with ground. Then, relay coil get power and attracts the level to Normally-Opened contact. Then the bulb gets power supply and it will start glowing.

If the count begins from one (Q1 is high) then output of Q2 becomes high. And the signal biased to reset pin 15 and hence everything on counter gets reset. So, the transistor Q1 becomes low (zero), then transistor becomes turn OFF. So, the relay also gets turn OFF. This leads to the disconnection of bulb from supply and bulb become OFF.


Face recognition based door locking system

The security sector is experiencing diversification. This has brought about
the need to review the reliability of already existing systems and look into the possibility of creating better systems that are smarter and more secure. The old door security systems made use of keys, locks and chains. However, the locks can be easily broken and keys can get stolen or can be duplicated. In order to overcome this drawback, mechanical locking system was
introduced, that is, latches were used. Latches had better security than the
locks. Although, latches cannot be broken as easily as the locks, they make
the use of keys, which are not so reliable and can get stolen. Further, to
avoid these drawbacks, password based system was introduced. This
system used numeric combination to permit entrance to user.

But security is entirely based on confidentiality and the strength of the password.Modification was made in the password from numeric to alpha-numeric.Security describes protection of life and property. moved to biometric security system to ensure better security. Biometric security system includes fingerprint based system was the first biometric locking system. Using the fingerprints of a person for unlocking the door is main parameter for this system. However, like any other systems, they also have drawbacks. Fingerprints of a person can be duplicated. This can lead to opening of the door for unauthorized person. Finally research moved to image processing system. This system provides high security. When a person wants to access his locker, initially at the main door of locker and PIR sensor will be placed. This sensor will sense the body temperature of a person, standing near the door. And then, his/her image will be captured by
the camera installed at the main gate. This image will be given to the PC
where the Python software will compare this image with the authentic
images stored in the PC. If authentic, then only the door will open otherwise
it will remain closed and the alarm will buzz for further action.


Drowsy driver detection

Drowsy driver detection is one of the potential applications of intelligent vehicle systems. Previous approaches to drowsiness detection primarily make pre-assumptions about the relevant behavior, focusing on blink rate, eye closure, and yawning. Here we employ machine learning to datamine actual human behavior during drowsiness episodes.

Automatic classifiers for facial actions from the facial action coding system were developed using machine learning on a separate database of spontaneous expressions. These facial actions include blinking and yawn motions, as well as a number of other facial movements


Soil prediction for modern agriculture


Agriculture is a non technical sector where in technology can be incorporated for the betterment. Agricultural technology needs to be quick inimplementation and easy in adoption. Farmers usually follow a method called crop mutation after every consequent crop yield. The crop mutation allowsthe soil to regain the minerals that were used by the crop previously and use the left over minerals for cultivating the new crop. To know if the soil hasreached the point where it is unfit to yield the particular crop, farmer has to experience a loss in yield. One financial year for a farmer is very crucial toaccept the loss. This paper implements a that would help in maintaining the soil fertility consistently.

This method is traditionally implemented in manycountries where the change in crop is done after a loss in yield for cultivating the same crop continuously. There are soil parameters that come into consideration when we have to predict the soil quality. This method suggests the solution for the above stated problem using Machine Learning Techniques. This paper suggests a software enabled solution considering crucial soil parameters and soil factors to predict the soil quality.


Hacking prevention for IOT using python

IoT (Internet of Things) is a current technology for sending and receiving the sensor data via internet networks so hacking prevention for IOT is most important in these days. It is same like normal data communication except that in IoT, sensors and microcontrollers are usually used. They are expected to explore, and there will be a growing interest in the IoT platform that provides the common functions of IoT devices.It
Links devices to the Internet and exchanges its data also enables us to monitor and control the real world. IoT systems make use of data in the real world and the data collected from devices can also be a target of cyber-attacks. There are many software solutions existing but technology had changed a lot even software solution can also be in threat.

Project explanation

In this project we propose a device which will act like a hack preventing device and gives an alert to the admin when an attempt is made to hack the IoT deviceIn our product we aim at providing a most secured device which will act like a switch between the IoT devices and the cloud. IoT (Internet of Things) is a current technology for sending a received the sensor data via internet networks. It is same like normal data communication except that in IoT, sensors and microcontrollers are usually used. The sending and receiving of data do not rely on the computer but relies on the microcontroller and portable communication devices such as cell phone, communication pad or even the smart watch with IoT, most of the sensors data can
be directly routed into the server.IoT (Internet of Things) is a collaborative environment of connected, intelligent and context-aware devices. It has been successfully realized as a main part of the 4th industrial revolution based on the rapid development of the cloud, communication technologies, sensor, etc. in contrast with the Ubiquitous. The biggest threat
to the future of IoT is data protection. Hardware in the form of Architectural techniques only. They only detect the attack and there is no preventive measures. It will break the IoT function while a large data flow occur. It is not that much safe to install. In this project we propose a device which will act like a hack preventing device and gives an alert to the
admin when an attempt is made to hack the IoT device it will act like a fuse or a switch that will turn off the connection when there is an excess flow of data through the IOT device and will never crash the IoT device or its data but will disconnect any other hacking sources and makes the system secure.


Automatic Temperature Controlled Switch

We can make control temperature using this circuit; it will make control temperature automatically. LM35 is the temperature sensor used in this circuit for detection of temperature and also it helps to turn ON/OFF the output devices or appliances.
Once we tune the LM35’s sensitivity level of temperature, the circuit becomes control as an automatic switch. Easily available components can be used for developing this circuit prototype with small PCB boards like line/dot PCBs.


Construction & Working

Regulator unit and rectifier are the first stage of this circuit. 110V to 220V AC Supply is the input voltage and it is converted into 9V AC by using step-down transformer. After that, it is being rectified into DC voltage using bridge rectifier. Capacitor C1 reacts as filter to remove AC ripples then using 7805 regulator IC regulates provides constant 5V DC Voltage Supply.
LM35 is the temperature sensor used in this circuit and it gives an output voltage linearly proportional to the centigrade temperature. And an operational amplifier LM358 used here to help us to choose the temperature level through the variable resistor, VR1 and output of this Op-Amp is drives the transistor, Q1. In between +5V DC and collector terminal of the transistor Q1, the relay coil has been connected. When output voltage is higher than 2.5V from Op-Amp transistor Q1 turns ON and it connect the relay coil to neutral/ground. Hence, the coil gets power and makes the Normally-Open contact to Normally-Closed one. So, we can control electrical loads or an appliance automatically depends on temperature.



Arduino – an introduction

Arduino is an opensource platform which is an easy to use hardware-based development, This development boards are commonly used Atmel based microcontroller which is programmed by using Arduino IDE(Integrated Development Environment). This freeware can be downloaded from the Arduino official site or use can program in a web-based platform named as Arduino create

project training

Key features

  • 16Mhz CLK speed
  • 1Kb EEPROM
  • 5v operating voltage
  • Input voltage can be vary from 7v to 12V(recommended)
  • The input voltage ranges from 6v to 20V
  • 14 Digital input/output pins
  • 6 Analog i/p pins
  • 40 mA DC Current for each input/output pin
  • Flash Memory is 32 KB
  • SRAM is 2 Kb

Pin diagram of arduino uno

Arduino programming

Once you purchase Arduino UNO (buy now ) you can connect with the computer after installing Arduino ide, Then you need to choose the development board and port from the tools option

Adruino was written in C++ also with some other functions and specific methods which are called as a sketch in Arduino IDE and then it process and compiles to machine language

Serial monitoring

For open serial monitoring option, we can see a magnifying glass icon in the right top of the Arduino IDE. This tool is mainly used for interacting the Arduino development board with the computer. Which means this tool help to debug and monitoring of the real-time program similarly like serial monitor Arduino also have a serial plotter which helps to plot the graph of a realtime running Arduino application


AC Powered 230V LED Circuit

AC powered 230V LED circuit is less cost effective and looks simple. We are using high bright white LEDs and those are connected to the AC source with the support of some rectification components without any step-down transformers.

So, the cost of this circuit has fewer prices in electronics market and the output light cost likewise too.

Circuit Diagram

led power circuit

Construction & Working

This circuit helps to light some LEDs without any step-down transformers. Polyester capacitor (0.47µF / 400V), Resistor 470KΩ 1/4 Watt and Bridge rectifier components are used to step-down the AC Power supply. Due to barrier generated by these components, AC remains reduced to lower level and then is converted in to DC Power Supply.

At the output of bridge rectifier, filters DC output using 47µF/25V electrolytic capacitor. The Zener diode 16V/1 watt regulates DC output from the rectifier. In this circuit, there are 5 high bright LEDs are connected in series and powered by the rectifier circuit. When power is ON, the resistor and polyester capacitor gives barrier to the AC mains and it reduces into lower level. The bridge will convert this lower AC into DC and the filter capacitor, Zener diodes are regulates the DC output. At the end of this process, the DC supply voltage will given to the LED array.

Note: This circuit operating on High Voltage. Attention for Handle with Extreme care.

Polyester Capacitor

The Voltage dropping capacitor (0.47uF / 400V or 474k / 400V X) rated capacitor is a power line filter capacitor. These are mostly used for to reduce the AC power supply through Capacitive Reactance property.


12v to 220v inverter DIY circuit

Inverters are made for producing high voltage from low voltage DC sources/batteries. We are here to design an inverter circuit for converting 12V DC source into 220V AC power. Its components are easily available in our electronics markets and so easy to build on PCB boards.

Operations of this kind of inverters are based on switching pulses and were uses step-up transformers. So, the CD4047 microcontroller acts as a switching pulse oscillator and IRFZ44N (N-channel power MOSFET) acts as it’s switch. Then the 12-0-12 secondary transformer will inversely used as a step-up transformer.

Inverter Circuit Diagram

Components Required

  1. Micro-controller CD4047
  2. Power MOSFET IRFZ44 = 2.
  3. 12-0-12V secondary transformer 1 amps
  4. Variable Resistor 22KΩ
  5. Resistors 100Ω / 10 watts = 2
  6. capacitor 0.22µF
  7. 12 volt battery

Construction & Working

This inverter circuit has switch device and step-up transformer. As per the theories, high switch frequency pulse reaches the step up transformer and due to the mutual inductance; output voltage will reach high value.

The microcontroller CD 4047 is configured as an astable multi-vibrator mode with the help of variable resistor RV1 and capacitor C1. By varying the value of RV1, we will collect different range of output pulse at Q and Q’ pins. These all results the variation of output voltage at the step-up transformer.

The IRFZ44 (N-channel power MOSFET) will drain, pins are connected with secondary pins of the transformer and common pin connected with the secondary winding and is connected with battery positive bias. Both MOSFETs source pins are connected to the negative bias of battery. And these are driven by Q and Q’ output from CD4047 micro-controller. If an alternate square pulse drives the MOSFETs switches, the secondary winding may forced to induce alternate magnetic field. This magnetic field induce primary winding of transformer and will produce high alternate voltage.

Note: High AC voltage circuit. Attention for handle with extreme care.